Types and features of anti vibration materials

Anti vibration materials are used to reduce or absorb vibrations, preventing them from being transmitted to other equipment or surfaces. There are different types of anti vibration materials available, so it is important to select the most suitable one for the machine and purpose of use.

Anti vibration rubber

Various materials are used for anti vibration, but basically they are made of rubber. Rubber parts used for vibration isolation are called ’anti vibration rubber’. Below are the types and features of the anti vibration rubber.

What is anti vibration rubber?

It is a vulcanized rubber product that prevents the transmission of vibration and shock, and is expected to provide not only vibration isolation but also shock-absorbing and sound-absorbing effects. It is sometimes called ’cushion rubber’ because it is mainly attached to parts of machines that vibrate to cushion the impact. It can prevent vibration of equipment from being transmitted to the foundation, or conversely, prevent vibration of the foundation from being transmitted to the machine. It is used in a wide variety of products  such as engines, generators, hydraulic presses, precision machinery,  bogies for railway vehicles, and washing machines.

Since rubber has large internal friction, it is soft and easy to move, allowing it to absorb and dissolve the vibration energy of the object it is supporting. The natural frequency of a vibration system depends on the load and the spring constant of the rubber, sothe appropriate anti vibration rubber should be selected. There are several types of anti vibration rubber, and the spring constant and its role will vary depending on its shape.

Types of anti vibration rubber

【Round type】

This type of rubber is small, has a large spring constant, and is widely used for a wide range of applications. Its simple structure allows it to be connected to a wide variety of equipment such as pumps, engines, and motors. Most types have metal fittings on both ends of the cylindrical shape, and are installed between the vibration generating part and the main body to absorb and reduce vibration. There are double-bolt types, single-bolt types, single washer types, etc.

【V type】

This type has a larger spring constant in the left and right directions by placing the rubber at an angle. This type is suitable for machines with lateral excitation force or complex vibrations. This type is often used in centrifuges, air compressors, restrained diesel engines, etc.

【Mounted type】

This is a type where equipment is mounted on top. The load range is wide and the spring constant is equal in all directions, making it suitable for relatively heavy equipment and equipment with complex vibrations.

【Suspension type】

This type is used for vibration isolation of ducts, suspended air conditioning equipment, system ceilings, etc. There are different types to choose from,  such as the type that combines a hanger and anti vibration rubber, or a small type suitable for small equipment, depending on the application. There is also a type of anti vibration rubber that is suitable for wall-mounted and wall-suspended switchboards.

Features of anti vibration pads

Anti vibration pads are pad-shaped material that can be easily installed by simply placing it under the machine. It can be used for machine tools, outdoor units of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, pumps, motors, and many other applications. Products made of rubber, gel, and silicone are also available.

Many types have slits on the surface of the pad, and these grooves absorb shock to achieve its anti vibration purpose. In addition to the types that are already cut into sizes that are easy to use, there are also types that can be cut using a cutter or other tools, allowing you to adapt them to the size and shape as needed. It has excellent durability and is economical. 

When using this product, it is necessary to determine the area required for use in accordance with the load of the machine. The weight and vibration frequency of the machine should be checked to determine the amount of deflection required. The area to be used is calculated from the amount of deflection and surface pressure.

Features of rubber stoppers

Rubber stoppers are mounted on walls, etc., and are mainly used as stoppers for moving machinery such as overhead cranes. Although compact, they are excellent in absorbing and reducing large impact forces, and are characterized by their softness in the event of a collision. Therefore, it can be expected to provide not only vibration isolation but also soundproofing. This is an essential item for factories that need to  consider the neighboring areas.

When selecting a stopper, calculate the impact energy of cranes, and then select a stopper whose impact energy is within the allowable energy range.

Summary

Anti vibration materials are necessary items for many machine works and construction sites. One of the best features of these products is that they are easy to install. To ensure efficient and safe use, when selecting a product, examine the vibration frequency, load, and installation shape of the machine to be used, and use a suitable anti vibration material.